The amount of production your structures create per turn depends on the type of structure they are. The resource gathering structures such as Lumber Mills or Chemical Plants will produce the same amount as the resource value they are mining at their location. For example, a Metal Mine on a basic Metal resource of 14 will produce 14 units of basic Metal a turn. A component factory, such as Alloy Factory or Fabrics Factory, can be setup anywhere but require certain resources at their location to operate. For example a Polymers Factory requires 2 Basic Minerals, 7 Basic Chemicals and 1 Industrial Chemical a turn to operate.
These types of factories usually take a total of 10 units of resources a turn to run but they produce 10 units of component tier product which are worth 2.5 times thier demand value. The End Product factories, like Toy Factory or Gadgets Factory, usually take 10 units worth of components but produce 10 units of End Product tier products a turn which are worth 5 times thier demand value. There are also Service products such as Housing and Parks which don't produce any product but instead sell directly to the city they are in. These service structures take 10 units worth of components but produce 10 units of their service product for 7.5 times the demand percentage. Increasing a structures level multiplies its production and the amount of resources it needs as well.
You start the game with 3 Research Points, 2 + Your Corp Level. Every level in your Corporate HQ gives you another point to allocate into a particular product or category. You can re-allocate these points under Corporate >> Research. You also get a bonus for all structures in the same location as your Corp HQ and a smaller one if they are on the same planet or star system (15, 10 and 5 respectively). These points translate to a bonus to the cost per turn of the appropriate structures. You can spend a point increase the production bonus of a specific product by 10 or an entire category of products by 5. There are other ways to increase your production cost bonus such as certain Megastructures at the location or planet. The cost to a run a level 1 structure is (1000 / (1 + [BONUS])). For example if your total bonus was 65% and the structure normally takes 1,000 credits per turn to run your total cost would be (1000 / (1 + 0.65)) = 606 per turn. Logistics penalty for having too many structures and Overcrowding penalty which happens when too many people are mining the same resource can lower your bonus into a negative number and actually multiply your cost.
When it comes to resources higher values are obviously better but when the total production against a specific resource location becomes large, around 1,000 units per turn, an increasing penalty is applied to all structures producing it. This is called the "Overcrowding Penalty" and it increases the cost it takes for structures to operate against that resource. It works just like the bonus for Corp HQ or Research bonuses but as a negative value. The penalty starts at (10 x Resourve value). For example a resource at value 12 will start to get a penalty at 1200 prodction by all corps mining it. The penalty scales with that number so another 1200 production, 2400 total will be a penalty of 100% making every structure producing that resource cost twice as much to run. This penalty insures that, eventually, the lower value resources become viable as more and more production happens in an area.
It should be noted that this 1200 per turn limit (from our example) is totaled against ALL corporations producing against it at that location and not just what your corporation is producing. If you cannot negotiate with the other corporations to keep the penalty down then you should consider mining at another location even if the resource value is lower. You can also always choose to attack but the Terran Federation will eventually show up to defend anywhere on Earth!
Every star system has a handful of asteroids scattered through it. These asteroids have resources on them similar to moons; however, structures cannot be placed on asteroids at all as they are considered to be “In Space”. You can have any ship “Mine Asteroid” at a location with a resource. This will put that product directly into the ship’s cargo bay at no additional cost. The amount of product that a ship will mine in a turn is equal to the value of the resource for every 100 power the ship has. A 100 power ship mining a value 15 resource will mine 15 products a turn. A 50 power ship (like a scout) will mine only 7 a turn. A 500 power ship will mine 15 x 5 = 75 a turn. You also get your Corp Tech Bonus for that particular resource, but no Corp HQ Location bonus. If you had a +20% bonus on that same resource you would be mining (15 x 1.20) x 5 = 90 a turn. You can also make a fleet of ships with some powerful units combined with freighters and have that fleet mine a field for large quantities.
Mining is designed for small scale ships to easily gather a needed resource quickly and easily and is not practical for huge operations. There is an Overcrowding mechanic on asteroid mining similar to normal structures. After 100 total power mining a location in a single turn it will cause a drop in production for everyone. The penalty is divide the total quantity by 1 + (Power/1000). For example mining a 15 value resource at 1200 power would be (15 x 12) / 2.1 = 85 and not 180 it normally would have been. This makes for an exponentialy sharp diminishing return on mining past 100 power in which you can never mine more than 10 times the value of the resource even with a huge fleet.
There is a limit on how many "levels" worth of structures you can have before incurring a logistics penalty. This limit increases as you level up your Corporation Headquarters. You get 10 points of logistics for every level of your Corp HQ past the first. At level 1 you start with 15 however. Every "level" of structure you have besides your Corp HQ counts against the logistics limit. If you exceed your limit you will incur a 1% increase in production cost for every point over your limit on ALL your structures. Logistics information is displayed on the top of the Assets page. Military units have their own logistics maximim which goes up by 50 points per CorpHQ level. Ground units use thier level for logistics but ship use thier "Size" attribute far counting against logistics instead.
All Structures can be upgraded in level up to level 10. Increasing thier level multiplies how much they cost, how much they produce per turn and even thier hit points. Upgrading a structure is nearly identical to building several more of the same thing however upgrading a single structure costs less to construct, less to maintain logistically and also has a higher output efficiency. Below is a table that shows how the upgrade effects progress:
Below are details on what category products are in as well as the structure they are built from. For manufactured products the components it takes to make them are displayed along with the resources that go into making those components. You can also see this list when viewing your Corporate HQ under the More Info tab.
The "Population Effect" is how strongly that products demand affects the growth of the different classes of population. Crops and Meats affect population at 5x normal and Water which affects overall population at 10x the typical rates. The surplus or lack of food and water in a city carries much more weight than other products when calcualting population growth.